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Steffen Hartmann

Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Interfaces between Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Metals by Pull-Out Testing

Autor: Steffen Hartmann

ISBN: 978-3-944640-77-8

Seitenzahl: 195

Erscheinungsdatum: 01.05.2016

 

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Produktinformationen "Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Interfaces between Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Metals by Pull-Out Testing"

In the light of future sensors, that are based upon the piezoresistive effect of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), this work presents comprehensive results of studies on the mechanical behavior of interfaces between SWCNTs and noble metals using the examples of Pd and Au. With this contribution, the focus is on a synergy between computational and experimental approaches involving molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, nanoscale testing, and analytics (1) to predict to a good degree of accuracy maximum forces of pulled SWCNTs embedded in a noble metal matrix and (2) to provide valuable input to understand the underlying mechanisms of failure. A MD model of a SWCNT embedded in a single crystalline matrix with pull-out test boundary conditions was developed. With this model, force-displacement relations and energy evolutions for a quasi-static displacement controlled test can be computed. The model provides critical forces for failure of the system. Furthermore, the influence of SWCNT type, embedding length, temperature, intrinsic defects and surface functional groups (SFGs) on the interface behavior can be studied using this model. For comparison, critical forces were experimentally determined by conducting pull-out tests in situ, inside a scanning electron microscope. A very good agreement of computational and experimental values was discovered. The dominant failure mode in the experiment was a SWCNT rupture, although several pull-out failures were also observed. From MD simulations, it was found that SFGs act as small anchors in the metal matrix and significantly enhance the maximum forces. This interface reinforcement can lead to tensile stresses sufficiently high to initiate SWCNT rupture. In contrast, pull-out test simulations of ideal SWCNTs show only small pull-out forces, which are mostly independent on SWCNT embedding length. This behavior is interpreted with an incommensurate configuration of crystal structures at the interface between SWCNTs and embedding noble metals. To qualify the existence of carboxylic SFGs on the used SWCNT material, an analytical investigation by means of fluorescence labeling of surface species was performed. In agreement with literature reports on the secured verification of SFGs due to necessary technological treatments, these experiments strongly indicate the presence of carboxylic SFGs on the used SWCNT material. Thus, the dominant SWCNT rupture failure is explained with an interface reinforcement by SFGs.
 

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