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Nicole Ahner

Wetting Optimized Solutions for Plasma Etch Residue Removal for Application in Interconnect Systems of Integrated Circuits

Autor: Nicole Ahner

ISBN: 978-3-941003-61-3

Seitenzahl: 233

Erscheinungsdatum: 01.03.2013

 

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Produktinformationen "Wetting Optimized Solutions for Plasma Etch Residue Removal for Application in Interconnect Systems of Integrated Circuits"

In multi-level Co/low-k based interconnect systems of ultralarge-scale integrated electronic devices the removal of plasma etch residues by common plasma cleaning processes has been shown to alter material properties like k-value and leakage current of the low-k dielectric. Besides the development of less damaging plasma processes their substitution by wet cleaning steps is in the focus of research and development. With further decreasing feature dimensions the development of wet cleaning processes has to include wetting issues like the non-wetting of small features due to the surface energy of the liquid or pattern collapse effects of low-k dielectric trenches due to high capillary forces This work at first focuses on the determination of the surface energetic character of common cleaning solutions for PERR and differently etched or ashed low-k dielectric surfaces by contact angle analysis, to outline which combinations of solid and liquid will be critical regarding their wetting behavior. Besides the determination of the wetting behavior the contact angle analysis turned out to be a fast and sensible analytic tool to understand the surface modifications introduced by different plasma processes and can help to understand the mechanisms of plasma damage of low-k dielectric surfaces. The analysis showed that especially polymerizing plasma etch processes produce a low-energetic low-k dielectric surface with a negligible polar energy contributions, which inhibits their wetting by high energetic water based cleaning solutions, which actually are favored by semiconductor manufacturers. The strategy to overcome these wetting issues followed in the present work is the reduction of the surface energy of the cleaning liquids by the application of surfactants. Several types of surfactants have been applied to the cleaning liquids and the compatibility of the surfactant solutions to BEOL materials like low-k dielectrics, copper and diffusion barriers as well as their dynamic behavior has been studied. The analysis showed that choosing the appropriate rinsing solution after the cleaning process is essential to ensure its compatibility to porous low-k dielectrics. Optical, electrical and structural data indicated that DIW rinse in most of the cases was not able to remove residual surfactant species within the material, while for an IPA rinse most of the residual surfactants have been removed. Considering the data received for compatibility to low-k materials, copper and barriers, the dynamic behavior of the surfactant solutions as well as influences of increased bath temperature and long term stability a general advice about surfactant selection and processing of surfactant aided solutions within BEOL is given.
 

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