Abdulkadir Sanli

Synthesis and Characterization of Strain Sensitive Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Epoxy based Nanocomposites

Autor: Abdulkadir Sanli

ISBN: 978-3-96100-047-0

Seitenzahl: 201

Erscheinungsdatum: 03.04.2018


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Produktinformationen "Synthesis and Characterization of Strain Sensitive Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Epoxy based Nanocomposites"

Among various nanofillers, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a significant attention due to their excellent physical properties. Incorporation of a very low amount of CNTs in polymer matrices enhances mechanical, thermal and optical properties of conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPNs) tremendously. For mechanical sensors, the piezoresistive property of CNTs/polymer nanocomposites exhibits a great potential for the realization of stable, sensitive, tunable and cost-effective strain sensors. Achieving homogeneous CNTs dispersion within the polymer matrices, understanding their complex piezoresistivity and conduction mechanisms, as well as the response of the nanocomposites under humidity and temperature effects, is highly required for the realization of piezoresistive CNTs/polymer based nanocomposites. This research primarily aims to synthesize and characterize CNTs/polymer based strain sensitive nanocomposites, which are cost-effective, applicable on both rigid and flexible substrates and require a non-complex fabrication process. A comprehensive understanding of the complex conduction and piezoresistive mechanisms of CNTs/polymer nanocomposites and their responses under humidity and temperature effects is another purpose of this thesis. For this purpose, synthesis and complex electromechanical characterization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/epoxy nanocomposites are realized. In order to realize strain sensors for the strain range up to 1 % the use of epoxy is focused due to its good adhesion, dimensional stability, and good mechanical properties. The nanocomposites with up to 1 wt.% MWCNTs are synthesized by a non-complex direct mixing method and the final nanocomposites are deposited on flexible Kapton and rigid FR4 substrates and their corresponding morphological, electrical, electromechanical, as well as the response of the nanocomposite under humidity and temperature influences, are examined. The deformation over the sensor area is tested by digital image correlation (DIC) under quasi-static uniaxial tension. Quantitative piezoresistive characterization is performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) over a wide range of frequencies. Further, dispersion quality of MWCNTs in the epoxy polymer matrix is monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, in order to tailor the piezoresistivity of the strain sensor, an R-C equivalent circuit is derived based on the impedance responses and the corresponding parameters are extracted from the applied strain. Obtained SEM images confirm that MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposites with different MWCNTs concentrations have a good homogeneity and dispersion. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis show that the samples have relatively good surface topography and fairly homogeneous CNTs networks. Higher sensitivity is achieved in particular at the concentrations close to the percolation threshold. A non-linear piezoresistive behavior is observed at low MWCNTs concentrations due to the dominance of tunneling effect. The strain sensitive nanocomposites deposited on FR4 substrates present high-performance strain sensing properties, including high sensitivity, good stability, and durability after cyclic loading and unloading. In addition, MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposites show quite a small creep, low hysteresis under cyclic tensile and compressive loadings and fast response and recovery times. Nanocomposites provide an opportunity to measure 2-D strain in one position including amplitude and direction for complex configuration of structures in real-time systems or products. In contrast to present solutions for multi-directional strain sensing, MWCNTs/epoxy based nanocomposites give promising results in terms of durability, easy-processability, and tunable piezoresistivity. Unlike commercially-available approaches for crack/damage identification, MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposites are capable of detecting the applied crack directly over a certain area. From the humidity influence, it has been found that resistance of nanocomposites increases with the increase of humidity exposure due to swelling of the polymer. Temperature investigations show that MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposites give negative temperature coefficient (NTC) response due to thermal activation of charge carriers and the temperature sensitivity increases with the increase of filler concentration. The proposed approach can be further developed by combining differently fabricated sensors for realizing a compact structural health monitoring system or multi-functional sensor, where pressure, strain, temperature, and humidity can be monitored simultaneously.

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